Category: Unix Intermediate


‘base64’: Transform data into printable data

‘base64’ transforms data read from a file, or standard input, into (or from) base64 encoded form.  The base64 encoded form uses printable ASCII characters to represent binary data.  Synopses:      base64 [OPTION]… [FILE]      base64 –decode [OPTION]… [FILE] The base64 encoding expands data to roughly 133%...


‘cat’: Concatenate and write files – Linux Command

‘cat’ copies each FILE (‘-‘ means standard input), or standard input if none are given, to standard output.  Synopsis:      cat [OPTION] [FILE]… The program accepts the following options.  ‘-A’ | ‘–show-all’                 Equivalent to ‘-vET’. ‘-b’ | ‘–number-nonblank’    Number all nonempty output lines, starting with 1....


‘csplit’: Split a file into context-determined pieces

‘csplit’ creates zero or more output files containing sections of INPUT (standard input if INPUT is ‘-‘).  Synopsis:      csplit [OPTION]… INPUT PATTERN… The contents of the output files are determined by the PATTERN arguments as detailed below.  An error occurs if a PATTERN argument refers...


‘fmt’: Reformat paragraph text

‘fmt’ fills and joins lines to produce output lines of (at most) a given number of characters (75 by default).  Synopsis:      fmt [OPTION]… [FILE]…    ‘fmt’ reads from the specified FILE arguments (or standard input if none are given), and writes to standard output.   ...


‘fold’: Wrap input lines to fit in specified width

‘fold’ writes each FILE (‘-‘ means standard input), or standard input if none are given, to standard output, breaking long lines.  Synopsis:      fold [OPTION]… [FILE]… By default, ‘fold’ breaks lines wider than 80 columns.  The output is split into as many lines as necessary. ‘fold’...


‘head’: Output the first part of files

‘head’ prints the first part (10 lines by default) of each FILE; it reads from standard input if no files are given or when given a FILE of ‘-‘. Synopsis:   head [OPTION]… [FILE]… If more than one FILE is specified, ‘head’ prints a one-line header...


‘md5sum’: Print or check MD5 digests

‘md5sum’ computes a 128-bit checksum (or “fingerprint” or “message-digest”) for each specified FILE. Note: The MD5 digest is more reliable than a simple CRC (provided by the ‘cksum’ command) for detecting accidental file corruption, as the  chances of accidentally having two files with identical MD5 are...


‘nl’: Number lines and write files – Linux Command

‘nl’ writes each FILE (‘-‘ means standard input), or standard input if none are given, to standard output, with line numbers added to some or all of the lines. Synopsis: nl [OPTION]… [FILE]… ‘nl’ decomposes its input into (logical) pages; by default, the line number is...


‘numfmt’: Reformat numbers

‘numfmt’ reads numbers in various representations and reformats them as requested.  The most common usage is converting numbers to/from _human_representation (e.g.  ‘4G’ ==> ‘4,000,000,000’).      numfmt [OPTION]… [NUMBER]    ‘numfmt’ converts each NUMBER on the command-line according to the specified options (see below).  If no NUMBERs...

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