Oracle Solaris 11 Administration – Command Cheat Sheet

Solaris Installation

Automated Installer (AI) is the new network based multi-client provisioning system on Oracle Solaris 11. AI provides hands-free installation of both SPARC and x86 systems by using an installation service that installs systems from software package repositories on the network.

 

Create an install service from a downloaded ISO file, specifying x86 based DHCP client starting at address 192.168.1.210 with a total count of 10 addresses:

# installadm create-service -n s11x86 -i 192.168.1.210 -c 10 -s /path/to/solaris-11-1111-ai-x86.iso

List all enabled services:

# installadm list

List any installation manifests associated with the install services:

# installadm list -m

Export the default installation manifest associated with the s11x86 service:

# installadm export -n s11x86 -m orig_default > manifest.xml

Import a manifest to be associated with the s11x86 service:

# installadm update-manifest -n s11x86 -m orig_default -f manifest.xml

List any system configuration profiles associated with the install services:

# installadm list -p

Create a system configuration profile interactively, saving the contents to a file:

# sysconfig create-profile -o profile.xml

Validate a system configuration profile against the default x86 install service:

# installadm validate -n default-i386 -P profile.xml

Associate a system configuration profile with the deafult x86 install service and give it a name sc-profile:

# installadm create-profile -n default-i386 -f profile.xml  -p sc-profile

Apply a criteria that all clients must have 4096MB memory or greater to the manifest s11manifest of s11x86 service:

# installadm set-criteria -m s11manifest -n s11x86 -a MEM=”4096-unbounded”

System Configuration

Common system configuration tasks have changed in Oracle Solaris 11 with the Service Management Facility (SMF) configuration repository being used to store configuration data. With the addition of configuration layers, administrators now have better control and assurance that their configuration changes will be preserved across system updates.

Configuring nodename:

# svccfg –s svc:/system/identity:node setprop config/nodename = “myhost”
# svcadm refresh svc:/system/identity:node
# svcadm restart svc:/system/identity:node

 

Configuring console keyboard layout:

# svccfg –s keymap:default setprop keymap/layout = UK-English
# svcadm refresh keymap
# svcadm restart keymap

 

Configuring system locale:

# svccfg –s timezone:default setprop timezone/localtime = astring: US/Mountain
# svcadm refresh timezone:default

Unconfigure a system and start an interactive configuration tool on reboot:

# sysconfig configure -s

Create a system configuration profile:

# sysconfig create-profile -o sc-profile.xml

Configure a system according to a system configuration profile:

# sysconfig configure -c sc-profile.xml

Users and Groups

The traditional root account has been changed to a ‘root’ role on all Oracle Solaris 11 installations as part of the Role Based Access Control (RBAC) feature set. This change gives improved auditability across the operating system, and the ability for administrators to delegate various system tasks to others in a safe way.

Revert to root as normal user account:

# rolemod –K type=normal root

Configure root as a role (default):

# usermod –K type=role root

Add a new user and delegate him the System Adminstrator profile:

# useradd -d /export/home/joerg -P “System Administrator” joerg

Boot Environments

Boot Environments are individual bootable instances of the operating system that take advantage of the Oracle Solaris ZFS filesystem snapshot and clone capability. During a system update, new boot environments are created so that system software updates can be applied in a safe environment. Should anything go awry, administrators can boot back into an older boot environment. Boot environments have low overhead and can be quickly created giving administrators an ideal best practice for any system
maintenance work.

Create a boot environment:

# beadm create solaris-05032012

Activate a boot environment:

# beadm activate solaris-05032012

Delete a boot environment:

# beadm destroy solaris-05032012

Show boot environments from SPARC boot PROM:

ok boot -L

Boot into a boot environment from SPARC boot PROM:

ok boot -Z rpool/ROOT/solaris-05032012

Software installation and Packaging

Oracle Solaris 11 includes IPS, a new network-centric package management framework with automatic dependency checking. IPS has integrated package and patching, and can seamlessly manage system updates to Oracle Solaris Zones environments.

Install a package called diagnostic/wireshark:

# pkg install diagnostic/wireshark

Install a group package to provide a desktop environment:

# pkg install solaris-desktop

Update all possible packages to the newest version, including any zones:

# pkg update

Do a dry run of a system update to understand what packages may change:

# pkg update -nv

Uninstall a package called diagnostic/wireshark:

# pkg uninstall wireshark

List all packages installed on a system:

# pkg list

Get more information about an installed package called diagnostic/wireshark:

# pkg info wireshark

List the contents of an installed package called diagnostic/wireshark:

# pkg contents wireshark

Search all packages in the configured repositories for a file called math.h:

# pkg search math.h

Search for all packages installed on a system that have a dependency on library/libxml2:

# pkg search -l -o pkg.name ‘depend::library/libxml2’

List currently associated package publishers:

# pkg publisher

Connect to the Oracle support repository and update the system:

# pkg set-publisher -g https://pkg.oracle.com/solaris/support -G http://pkg.oracle.com/solaris/release -k /path/to/ssl_key -c /path/to/ssl_cert solaris
# pkg update

File systems – Basic ZFS Administration

Oracle Solaris ZFS is the default root file system on Oracle Solaris 11. ZFS has integrated volume management, preserves the highest levels of data integrity and includes a wide variety of data services such as data deduplication, RAID and data encryption.

Create a ZFS pool with a single disk:

# zpool create testpool c3t2d0

Create a ZFS pool with 3 disks in RAID0 configuration:

# zpool create testpool c3t2d0 c3t3d0 c3t4d0

 

Create a ZFS pool with 3 disks in RAID1 configuration:

# zpool create testpool mirror c3t2d0 c3t3d0 c3t4d0

Create a ZFS pool with 3 disks in a RAIDZ configuration (single parity):

# zpool create testpool raidz c2t2d0 c3t3d0 c3t4d0

Create a ZFS pool with 1 disk and 1 disk as seperate ZIL (ZFS Intent Log):

# zpool create testpool c3t2d0 log c3t3d0

Create a ZFS pool with 1 disk and 1 disk as L2ARC (Level 2 storage cache):

# zpool create testpool c3t2d0 cache c3t3d0

Share a filesystem via NFS:

# zfs create zpool/fs1
# zfs set share=name=fs1,path=/rpool/fs1,prot=nfs rpool/fs1
# zfs set sharenfs=on rpool/fs1

Share a filesystem via CIFS:

# pkg install service/filesystem/smb
# svcadm enable -r smb/server
# echo “other password required pam_smb_passwd.so.1 nowarn” >> /etc/pam.conf
# smbadm enable-user joerg
# zfs set share=name=sh1,path=/rpool/fs1,prot=smb rpool/fs1
# zfs set sharesmb=on rpool/fs1

Use shadow migration:

# pkg install shadow-migration
# svcadm enable shadowd
# zfs set readonly=on path/to/data
# zfs create -o shadoow=file:///path/to/data target/new/path/to/data

Disk Devices

Show all disks on a system:

# cfgadm -s “select=type(disk)”

Configure a disk to be used via iSCSI

# svcadm enable svc:/network/iscsi/initiator
# iscsiadm modify initiator-node -A myclient
# iscsiadm add discovery-address 10.211.55.200
# iscsiadm discovery -t enable
# devfsadm -c iscsi

Replace a faulty disk c1t1d0 from ZFS pool testpool:

# zpool offline testpool c1t1d0
# cfgadm -c unconfigure c1::dsk/c1t1d0
# cfgadm -c configure c1::dsk/c1t1d0
# zpool replace testpool c1t1d0
# zpool online testpool c1t1d0

Mirror existing boot disk c3t0d0s0 with disk c3t2d0s0

# fdisk -B c3t2d0s0
# prvtoc /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0s0 | fmthard -s – /dev/rdsk/c3t2d0s0

On x86 systems:

# installgrub /boot/grub/stage1 /boot/grub/stage2 /dev/rdsk/c3t2d0s0

On SPARC systems:

# installboot -F zfs /usr/platform/`uname -i`/lib/fs/zfs/bootblk/dev/rdsk/c3t2d0s0

Oracle Solaris Zones

Oracle Solaris Zones provide isolated and secure virtual environments running on a single operating system instance, ideal for application deployment. When administrators create a zone, an application execution environment is produced in which processes are isolated from the rest of the system.

Create a zone with an exclusive IP network stack:

# zonecfg -z testzone
testzone: No such zone configured
Use ‘create’ to begin configuring a new zone.
zonecfg:testzone> create
zonecfg:testzone> set zonepath=/zones/testzone
zonecfg:testzone> set autoboot=true
zonecfg:testzone> verify
zonecfg:testzone> commit
zonecfg:testzone> exit

List all running zones verbosely:

# zoneadm list -v

List all configured zones:

# zoneadm list -c

List all installed zones:

# zoneadm list -i

Install a zone:

# zoneadm -z testzone install

Boot a zone:

# zoneadm -z testzone boot

List configuration about a zone:

# zoneadm -z testzone list

Login to a zone:

# zlogin -C testzone

Halt a zone

# zoneadm -z testzone halt

Shutdown a zone

# zoneadm -z testzone shutdown

Monitor a zone for CPU, memory and network utilization every 10 seconds:

# zonestat -z testzone 10

Service Management Facility

Service Management Facility (SMF) provides a framework for managing services on Oracle Solaris including the ability to automatically restart any service after failure. Each service instance is named with a fault management resource indicator (FMRI).

 

Show all services (including disabled services):

# svcs

List detailed information about system/zones:

# svcs -l system/zones

List processes associated with the network/netcfg service:

# svcs -p network/netcfg

Show why services that are enabled but are not running, or preventing other services from running:

# svcs -xv

Enable a service called network/dns/client:

# svcadm enable network/dns/client

Restart a service called network/nfs/server using an abbreviated FMRI:

# svcadm restart nfs/server

Disable a service called network/ssh:

# svcadm disable network/ssh

Display all properties and values in the SMF configuration repository for the service network/ssh:

# svcprop network/ssh

Interactively display the general/enabled property within the SMF configuration repository for the service network/ssh:

# svccfg
svc:> select ssh:default
svc:/network/ssh:default> listprop general/enabled
svc:/network/ssh:default> exit

Set the port number of the application/pkg/server service to 10000:

# svccfg -s application/pkg/server setprop pkg/port=10000
# svcadm refresh application/pkg/server

Configure email notifications for all services that drop from online to maintenance state:

# svccfg setnotify -g from-online,to-maintenance mailto:admin@myhost.org

List all configuration changes that have been made in the SMF configuration repository to the name-service/switch service:

# svccfg -s name-service/switch listcust –L

Solaris 11 Networking

Oracle Solaris 11 uses profile based networking configuration, comprised of two configuration modes – manual and automatic. These modes differ in how administrators configure the system, either manually using dladm and ipadm, or through creating and applying network configuration profiles.

Networking – Manual Administration

Switch to manual network configuration:

# netadm enable –p ncp defaultfixed

Show physical network interfaces:

# dladm show-phys

Create interface with static IPv4 configuration:

# ipadm create-ip net0
# ipadm create-addr –T static –a local=10.9.8.7/24 net0/addr
# ipadm show-addr

Create interface with DHCP configuration:

# ipadm create-ip net0
# ipadm create-addr –T dhcp net0/addr

Create interface with auto-generated IPv6 configuration:

# ipadm create-ip net0
# ipadm create-addr –T addrconf net0/addr

Configure default route:

# route –p add default 192.168.1.1

Activate DNS configuration:

# svccfg –s dns/client setprop config/nameserver = net_address: 192.168.1.1
# svccfg –s dns/client setprop config/domain = astring: “myhost.org”
# svccfg –s name-service/switch setprop config/host = astring: \“files dns\”
# svcadm refresh name-service/switch
# svcadm refresh dns/client

Activate DNS configuration (alternate approach by editing /etc/resolv.conf and /etc/nsswitch.conf and then importing these modifications into SMF)

# nscfg import –f svc:/system/name-service/switch:default
# nscfg import –f svc:/network/dns/client:default
# svcadm refresh dns/client

Networking – Automatic Administration

Create a network configuration profile:

# netcfg create ncp datacenter
# netcfg
netcfg> select ncp datacenter
netcfg:ncp:datacenter> create ncu phys net0
Created ncu ‘net0’. Walking properties …
ip-version (ipv4,ipv6) [ipv4|ipv6]> ipv4
ipv4-addsrc (dhcp) [dhcp|static]> static
ipv4-addr> 192.168.1.27
ipv4-default-route> 192.168.1.1
netcfg:ncp:datacenter:ncu:net0> end
Committed changes
netcfg:ncp:datacenter> exit

Create a network location profile:

# netcfg
netcfg> create loc datacenter
Created loc ‘datacenter’. Walking properties …
activation-mode (manual) [manual|conditional-any|conditionalall]>
conditional-any
conditions> ip-address is 192.168.1.27
nameservices (dns) [dns|files|nis|ldap] dns
nameservices-config-file (“/etc/nsswitch.dns”)>
dns-nameservice-configsrc (dhcp) [manual|dhcp]> manual
dns-nameservice-domain> datacenter.myhost.org
dns-nameservice-servers> 192.168.1.1
dns-nameservice-search>
dns-nameservice-sortlist>
dns-nameservice-options>
nfsv4-domain>
ipfilter-config-file>
ipfilter-v6-config-file>
ipnat-config-file>
ippool-config-file>
ike-config-file>
ipsecpolicy-config-file>
netcfg:loc:datacenter>
netcfg:loc:datacenter> exit
Committed changes
Activate a network configuration profile:
# netadm enable -p ncp datacenter

 

Networking – Advanced Administration

Create a virtual network interface over existing physical interface net0 with address 192.168.0.80:

# dladm create-vnic -l net0 vnic0
# ipadm create-ip vnic0
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.0.80 vnic0/v4

Create two virtual network interfaces over a virtual switch (without a physical network interface):

# dladm create-etherstub stub0
# dladm create-vnic -l stub0 vnic0
# dladm create-vnic -l stub0 vnic1

Reduce the bandwidth of the virtual network interface vnic0 to 100Mbps:

# dladm set-linkprop -p maxbw=100 vnic0

Restrict the bandwidth going to IP address 192.168.0.30 by creating a flow on virtual network interface vnic0, then restrict its bandwidth to 50Mbps:

# flowadm add-flow -l vnic0 -a remote_ip=192.168.0.30 flow0
# flowadm set-flowprop -p maxbw=50 flow0

Restrict network traffic to TCP for a local port 443 for network interface net0:

# flowadm add-flow -l net0 -a transport=TCP,local_port=433 flow0

 

Activating Jumbo Frames (ethernet packets greater than 1500 bytes):

# dladm set-linkprop -p mtu=9000 net0

 

Configure Link Aggregation:

# dladm create-aggr -l net0 -l net1 aggr0
# ipadm create-ip aggr0
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 10.1.1.2/24 aggr0/v4

Configure VLANS:

# dladm create-vlan -l net0 -v 100 administration1
# dladm create-vlan -l net0 -v 2 production1
# ipadm create-ip administration1
# ipadm create-ip production1
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.2.2/24 administration1/v4static
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.2/24 production1/v4static

Configure an IPMP group:

# ipadm create-ip net0
# ipadm create-ip net1
# ipadm create-ip net2
# ipadm create-ipmp ipmp0
# ipadm add-ipmp -i net0 -i net1 -i net2 ipmp0
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.27/24 ipmp0/v4
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.50/24 net0/test
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.51/24 net1/test
# ipadm create-addr -T static -a 192.168.1.52/24 net2/test

 

 

 

 

Ramdev

Ramdev

I have started unixadminschool.com ( aka gurkulindia.com) in 2009 as my own personal reference blog, and later sometime i have realized that my leanings might be helpful for other unixadmins if I manage my knowledge-base in more user friendly format. And the result is today's' unixadminschool.com. You can connect me at - https://www.linkedin.com/in/unixadminschool/

3 Responses

  1. Don Stephenson says:

    Thank you so much for the detailed info. As a new user to UNIX I have found reliable and understandable info hard to come by. The similarities to linux have allowed me to get by but this is great. I immediately fell in love with UNIX and never want to go back to the unreliablilties of linux, although I do run it as a guest vm on my Solaris host. Great Job!!! thx

  1. September 2, 2015

    […] Oracle Solaris 11 Administration – Command Cheat Sheet […]

  2. September 16, 2015

    […] Read Command Cheat Sheet – Basic Adminsitration […]

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